The Kampung Improvement Programme (KIP) in Indonesia probably rates as the foremost settlement upgrading achievement in the world[1].


The objectives of the programme are[1] to provide access roads, footpaths, drainage, sewage solutions and drinking water and social facilities such as schools and health centres for urban low-and medium income groups in Indonesia's popular kampung settlements.


KIP is also a good example of the importance of local support for upgrading programmes. When the programme was introduce in 1969 it had a top-down design where officials analyzed communities and imposed their solutions. However, as local resistance increased it was realized that the programme had to be reorganized to involve residents in community-based organizations. Residents became much more enthusiastic and it was found that they were also willing to provide substantial amounts of funds. Today, KIP is an established method and its effectiveness in the provision of basic infrastructure is well recognized[1].


KIP/Jakarta, alone, has improved more than 500 kampungs and provided basic services to about 3.8 million people. Indonesia's five-year-plan for 1989-1994 was to be implemented in 500 cities and included projects for urban renewal encompassing settlement upgrading programmes[1].


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 UN-ESCAP (1998) Urban Land Policies for the Uninitiated
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